A Glossary Of Mixing Phrases – Half 2

Final week we coated Half 1 of the glossary of blending phrases. This week is a component 2. Each come from the most recent fifth version of my Mixing Engineer’s Handbook.

I/O. The enter/output of a tool.

immersive audio. Multi-dimensional sound that utterly envelops the listener due to audio system positioned across the listening atmosphere in addition to overhead. 

enter pad. An digital circuit that attenuates the sign, normally 10 or 20dB. See additionally attenuation pad.

within the field. Mixing with the software program console inside a DAW utility on a pc as an alternative of utilizing a {hardware} console.

iso sales space. Isolation sales space. An remoted part of the studio designed to remove exterior sound from coming into the sales space or sound leaking out.

intonation. The accuracy of tuning wherever alongside the neck of a stringed instrument like a guitar or bass. Additionally applies to brass, woodwinds, and piano.

knee. The velocity at which a compressor will activate as soon as it reaches threshold. A delicate knee activates steadily and is much less audible than a tough knee.

kHz. One kHz equals 1,000 hertz (instance: 4kHz = 4,000 Hz).

lacquer. The vinyl grasp, which is a single-sided 14″ disc product of aluminum substrate coated with a delicate cellulose nitrate. A separate lacquer is required for both sides of a vinyl file. Because the lacquer can by no means be performed, a ref or acetate is made to test the disc. 

latency. Latency is a measure of the time it takes (in milliseconds) in your audio sign to move via your system throughout the recording course of. This delay is brought about by the point it takes in your pc to obtain, perceive, course of, and ship the sign again to your outputs.

leakage. Sound from a distant instrument “bleeding” right into a mic pointed at one other instrument. Acoustic spill from a sound supply apart from the one meant for pickup.

Leslie. A speaker cupboard that options rotating audio system primarily used with organs.

LFE. Low-frequency results channel. It is a particular channel of 30Hz to 120Hz info primarily meant for particular results, corresponding to explosions in films. The LFE has a further 10dB of headroom to accommodate the required sound stress stage of the low frequencies.

limiter. A signal-processing system used to constrict or scale back audio dynamics, lowering the loudest peaks in quantity.

look-ahead. In a digital processor, look-ahead delays the audio sign a small quantity (about two milliseconds) in order that the processor can anticipate the transients in such a approach that it catches the height earlier than it will get by.

loop. A small audio file, normally solely 4 or eight beats (or measures) lengthy that’s edited in a approach in order that it will possibly seamlessly repeat.

low-pass filter (LPF). A digital frequency filter that permits solely the low frequencies to move whereas attenuating the excessive frequencies. The frequency level the place it cuts off is normally both switchable or variable. Generally known as “excessive lower.”

low finish. The decrease finish of the audio spectrum, or bass frequencies normally beneath 200Hz.

make-up achieve. A management on a compressor/limiter that applies further achieve to the sign. That is useful as a result of the sign is routinely decreased when the compressor is working. Make-up achieve “makes up” the achieve and brings it again to the place it was previous to being compressed and past.

grasp. A ultimate model of a recording that’s destined for distribution.

mastering. The method of turning a group of songs right into a file by making them sound like they belong collectively in tone, quantity, and timing (spacing between songs on an album). A extra trendy definition is that mastering is the method of fine-tuning the extent, frequency steadiness, and metadata of a monitor in preparation for distribution.

metadata. Knowledge that describes the first information. For example, metadata will be information about an audio file that signifies the date recorded, pattern price, decision, artist, file label, writer, and so forth. 

midrange. Center frequencies ranging from round 250Hz and going as much as 4,000Hz. 

combine buss. The audio sign path community that mixes all the particular person channels collectively in your ultimate combine.

modeling. A software program algorithm that’s an digital illustration of the sound of a {hardware} audio system all the way down to its smallest behaviors and nuances.

modulation. Utilizing a second sign to switch the primary. For instance, a refrain makes use of a really low-frequency sign to modulate the audio sign and produce the impact.

mono. Brief for monaural, or single audio playback channel.

monaural. A mixture that’s bussed to a single channel and normally comes from just one speaker.

MP3. An information-compression format used to make audio recordsdata smaller in measurement.  

muddy. Non-distinct due to extreme low or low-mid frequencies.

mult. A piece of an analog patchbay that allows patching to a number of inputs or outputs.

multi-band compression. A compressor that is ready to individually compress completely different frequency bands as a method of offering extra management over the compression course of.

mute. An on/off change. To mute one thing means to show it off.

outboard gear. {Hardware} units corresponding to compressors, reverbs, and results bins that aren’t constructed right into a console and normally reside in an gear rack within the management room.

outro. The part of a track after the final refrain till the tip of the track.

overs. Digital overs happen when the extent is so excessive that it makes an attempt to transcend 0dB Full Scale on a typical digital stage meter present in nearly all digital gear. A purple Overload indicator normally will mild, accompanied by the crunchy, distorted sound of waveform clipping.

overdub. To file a brand new monitor whereas listening to beforehand recorded tracks.

overtone. The harmonic a part of a sound that offers it its character and uniqueness.

out of section. The polarity of two channels (it may very well be the left and proper channels of a stereo program) are reversed, thereby inflicting the middle of this system (such because the vocal) to decrease in stage. Electronically, when one cable is wired backwards from all of the others.

pan. Brief for panorama. Signifies the place of an instrument inside the stereo soundfield.

panning. Transferring a sound throughout the stereo soundfield.

parametric equalizer. A tone management the place the achieve, frequency, and frequency bandwidth are all variable.

peaks. A portion of an audio sign that’s quickly a lot greater in stage than the remainder of the sign.

section. The place of a sound wave in time. For a periodic waveform, the section tells you the purpose alongside its form the place the wave’s sample begins.

phantom picture. In a stereo system, if the left and proper channels have an equally loud audio sign, the resultant sound seems to return from in between them.  

section shift. The method throughout which some frequencies are slowed down ever so barely as they move via a tool. That is normally exaggerated by extreme use of equalization and could also be undesirable.

section meter. A devoted meter that shows the relative section of a stereo sign.

plate (reverb). A technique used to create synthetic reverberation utilizing a big metal plate with a speaker and several other transducers related to it.

playlist. In radio, a listing of the music that station will broadcast. In streaming music, a curated listing of prompt songs.

plug-in. An add-on to a pc utility that provides performance to it. EQ, compression, modulation, and reverb are examples of DAW plug-ins.

level. The frequencies between 2k and 5kHz that trigger a sound to be extra distinct.

energy chords. Lengthy, sustaining, distorted guitar chords. 

energy trio. A 3-piece band consisting of guitar, bass and drums that usually play rock or metallic.

pre-chorus. See B-section.

predelay. A variable size of time earlier than the onset of reverberation. Predelay is commonly used to separate the supply from the reverberation so the supply will be heard extra clearly.

preroll. A brief size of time earlier than recording begins or a track part arrives.

presence. Accentuated excessive frequencies (wherever from 5k to 10kHz).

producer. The equal of a film director, the producer has the flexibility to craft the songs of an artist or band technically, sonically, and musically.

proximity impact. The inherent low-frequency increase that happens with a directional microphone because it will get nearer to the sign supply.

Pultec. A tube-based analog equalizer made throughout the Nineteen Fifties and 60s by Western Electrical that’s extremely prized immediately for its clean sound.

pumping. When the extent of a combination will increase after which decreases noticeably. Pumping is brought on by the improper setting of the assault and launch instances on a compressor.

punchy. An outline for a top quality of sound that infers good replica of dynamics with a powerful influence. The time period generally means emphasis within the 200Hz and 5kHz areas. 

Q. The frequency bandwidth of a filter or equalizer that could be mounted or variable. Q stands for filter “high quality.”

vary. On a gate or expander, a management that adjusts the quantity of attenuation that may happen to the sign when the gate is closed.

ratio. A management on a compressor/limiter that determines how a lot compression or limiting will happen when the sign exceeds the brink.

recall. A system that memorizes the place of all pots and switches on a console. On older analog consoles, the engineer should nonetheless bodily reset the pots and switches again to their earlier positions as indicated on a video monitor.

file. A generic time period for the distribution format of a recording. No matter whether or not it’s a CD, vinyl, or a digital file, it’s nonetheless often called a file.

launch. The final a part of a sound. On a compressor/limiter, a management that impacts how that system will reply to the discharge of a sound. Additionally, making a file out there for distribution.

resonance. See resonant frequency.

resonant frequency. A selected frequency or band of frequencies that’s accentuated, normally attributable to some extraneous acoustic, digital, or mechanical issue.

return. An enter on a recording console particularly devoted for results units, corresponding to reverbs and delays. The return inputs are normally not as subtle as regular channel inputs on a console. In most DAWs, the returns are known as Aux channels.

reverb. A sort of sign processor that reproduces the spatial sound of an atmosphere (such because the sound of a closet or locker room or inside an oil tanker).

rhythm part. The devices in a band that give the track its pulse, normally the bass and drums.

RMS meter. A meter that reads the typical stage of a sign.

roll off. To attenuate both finish of the frequency spectrum.

scratch vocal. A short lived vocal recorded throughout fundamental monitoring with the intention of changing it with a extra appropriate one later.

shelving curve. A sort of equalizer circuit used to spice up or lower a sign above or beneath a specified frequency; seems to be flat like a shelf when graphed. Often the high- and low-band equalizers constructed into many mixing boards are the shelving sort.

sibilance. A brief burst of excessive frequencies centering wherever in a vocal’s 3kHz to 10kHz vary, ensuing within the “S” sounds being overemphasized.

sidechain. A separate sign path to and from the management component of a dynamics system.

sign path. The digital or digital pathway via circuitry and processors that the audio sign should move via.

track type. The a number of sections that make up a track. Most songs have a mixture of intro, verse, pre-chorus, refrain, bridge and outro.

soundfield. The listening space containing largely direct sound from the monitor audio system.

supply. An authentic grasp that’s not a replica or a clone.

spectrum. The whole audible vary of audio alerts.

SPL. Sound-pressure stage. The quantity stage of a sound to the human ear.

stage. In an analog console, a block of circuitry that performs a console perform, corresponding to EQ or panning. In a digital or software program console, a digital block that performs a console perform.

standing waves. An acoustic property of a room the place sure frequencies replicate off the partitions, ground, or ceiling that may both increase the sign or attenuate it, relying upon the place within the room you’re standing.

stem. An instrument group of tracks that make up a full combine. Stems are usually divided into drum stems, bass stem, vocal stem and devices stem, though they could get additional outlined, corresponding to background vocal stem, keyboards stem, and many others. Every stem comprises all the processing and results added throughout the combine.

sympathetic vibration. Vibrations, buzzes, and rattles or notes that happen in areas of an instrument or devices apart from the one which was struck.

subgroup. A separate submixer that sums the assigned channels collectively after which sends that blend to the grasp combine buss. 

sub. Brief for subwoofer.

subwoofer. A low-frequency speaker with a frequency response from about 30Hz to as excessive as 120Hz.

synchronization. When two units—normally storage units, corresponding to tape machines, DAWs, or sequencers—are locked along with respect to time.

tape slap. A technique to create a delay impact utilizing a tape machine. A slap is normally 100 to 200ms.

tempo. The speed of velocity at which a track is performed.

stress and launch. Constructing a listener’s expectations after which enjoyable them, corresponding to dissonance to concord or loud to quiet.

threshold. The purpose at which an impact takes place. On a compressor/limiter, as an example, the brink management adjusts the sign stage at which compression will happen.

monitor sharing. When a single monitor shares multiple instrument. For example, when a percussion half is recorded on a guitar solo monitor in locations that the guitar has not been recorded.

timed delay. A delay the place the repeats are timed to pulse together with the heart beat of the track.

top-end. See high-end.

monitor. A time period generally used to imply a track. In recording, a separate musical efficiency that’s recorded to a separate piece of the DAW timeline.

transient. A really short-duration sign.

TV combine. A mixture with out the lead vocals so the artist can sing stay to the backing tracks throughout a tv look.

vamp. To repeat a brief passage of music.

You’ll be able to learn extra from The Mixing Engineer’s Handbook and my different books on the excerpt part of bobbyowsinski.com.

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